Heat Stress Tolerance Effect
The fermentation of feeds in the rumen and cecum results in the production of heat, resulting in an average temperature around 102 degrees Fahrenheit, with the gasses carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) being sources of energy loss and heat production. As a result, feed intake is controlled to some extent by the environmental temperature. Feed intake is relatively constant between 59° and 77° Fahrenheit (15° and 25° C), however feed intake decreases above 77° F (25° C). Additionally, the animal’s maintenance energy requirements increase above this temperature due to an increased respiration rate. The digestion of forage is less energetically efficient than the digestion of grain, and results in more heat production than the digestion of grains as a result of more acetate, carbon dioxide, and methane production. Therefore, increasing the efficiency of fermentation with forages should result in less heat stress on the animal and result in improved performance.
Marcus et al., 1986
Amaferm reduced mean rectal temperatures, taken in the p.m., by .4 degrees Fahrenheit in Holstein cows that were in a lactation study that went from June to November in Arizona. (Marcus, K.M., J.T. Huber, and S. Cramer, 1986. Influence of Feeding VitaFerm During Hot Weather on Performance of Lactating Cows in a Large Dairy Herd. J. Dairy Sci. 69 (Suppl 1):188. (Abstr.)
Gomez-Alarcon et al., 1991
Amaferm has been shown to reduce rectal temperatures in 40% of the readings taken on mid-lactation Holstein cows during the summer in Arizona. (Gomez-Alarcon, R.A., J.T. Huber, G.E. Higginbotham, F. Wiersma, D. Ammon and B. Taylor. 1991. “Influence of feeding Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Extract on the Milk Yields, Eating Patterns and Body Temperatures of Lactating Cows.” J. Anim. Sci. 69:1733-1740).
Caton et al., 1993
Steers grazing cool-season pastures had increased dry matter intake and fiber digestibility during July and August when pastures were dormant, when supplemented with Amaferm. (Caton, J. S., D. O. Erickson, D. A. Carey, and D. L. Ulmer. 1993. Influence of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on forage intake, site of digestion, in situ degradability, and duodenal amino acid flow in steers grazing cool-season pasture. J. Anim. Sci. 71:779-787).
Chiou et al., 2002
During the summer, May to July, Amaferm supplementation did not alleviate heat stress with rectal temperature and milk production not significantly improved. However, Amaferm addition to the TMR resulted in a significant (P < .05) daily body weight change, with the control group losing .4 lb/day and the Amaferm group gaining 1.3 lb/day, with no difference in dry matter feed intake. In the winter, December to February, Amaferm addition to the TMR resulted in a 12.6% improvement (P < .005) in milk yield, and a 7.8% improvement P < .005) in 4% fat corrected milk, with no difference in dry matter feed intake. Chiou, P.W.S.; Chen, C.R.; Yu, B. 2002. Effects of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on performance of lactating cows in the summer and winter in Taiwan. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 15:382-389.